Resolutions by UN organs

General Assembly

International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of This Crime (A/RES/69/323)


Human Rights Council

2008 Resolution on Prevention of Genocide (A/HRC/RES/7/25)
2013 Resolution on Prevention of Genocide (A/HRC/RES/22/22)
2015 Resolution on Prevention of Genocide (A/HRC/RES/28/34)
2018 Resolution on Prevention of Genocide (A/HRC/37/L.44)
A/HRC/RES/43/29 (2020) Prevention of genocide



Articles by the Special Advisers

"Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Genocide" by Adama Dieng (Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide). Published in UN Chronicle, Vol. LIII No. 4 2016, December 2016


Other Documents

Framework of Analysis for Atrocity Crimes
When To Refer To A Situation as Genocide


Global Action Against Mass Atrocity Crimes

GAAMAC III - Third Global Meeting
Manual on Best Practices for the Establishment and Management of National Mechanisms for Genocide and Mass Atrocities Prevention
Women and atrocity prevention (Karen Smith)
The impact of COVID-19 on transitional justice and atrocity prevention
Link to other news articles


Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies

Preventing violent extremism and mass atrocities - A handbook for parliamentarians
How can Canada best support women in the field of conflict and atrocity prevention?, 2018
Mapping the Artificial Intelligence, Networked Hate, and Human Rights Landscape, 2018
A brief listing of some major works dealing with genocides and their comparative aspects


“PLAN OF ACTION for Religious Leaders and Actors TO PREVENT Incitement to Violence that Could Lead to Atrocity Crimes”. United Nations

“THE POWERS OF THE UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY TO PREVENT AND RESPOND TO ATROCITY CRIMES: A GUIDANCE DOCUMENT”. Asia- Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. 2021

“Atrocity Prevention and Outcomes of the Human Rights Council’s 46th Session”. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. Summary. 2021

“The Future of Mass Atrocities and Atrocity Prevention. Report from the 2020 Sudikoff Interdisciplinary Seminar on Genocide Prevention”. UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM. 2021

“Practical Prevention. How the Genocide Convention’s Obligation to Prevent Applies to Myanmar. LEGAL BRIEF. Report #1: Identifying and Mitigating Risk Factors”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

“Practical Prevention. How the Genocide Convention’s Obligation to Prevent Applies to Myanmar. LEGAL BRIEF. Report #2: The Denial of the Right to Citizenship and the Right to Participate in Public Affairs”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

“Fundamentals of Genocide and Mass Atrocity Prevention”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Atrocity Prevention and Outcomes of the Human Rights Council’s 47th Session. 2021

Countries at Risk for Mass Killing 2021–22: Early Warning Project Statistical Risk Assessment Results. 2021
European Peacebuilding Liaison Office (EPLO)

A new Africa-EU Strategy: Recommendations for EU support to peace and security in the framework of a renewed Africa-EU Partnership, October 2020
Mapping of actors: The EU and peacebuilding after Lisbon, updated in February 2020
Capacity building in support of development and security for development: Recommendations for implementation, May 2018
How will the EU support peacebuilding after 2020? EPLO’s position on the next EU Multiannual Financial Framework, May 2018
Resolutions by UN organs

Human Rights Council

2016 Resolution on Human Rights and Transitional Justice (A/HRC/RES/33/19)


United Nations Human Rights Council

Report of the Human Rights Council (2020) (A/75/53)
Yearly reports on regular sessions are also available
Intersessional meeting on human rights and the 2030 Agenda (16 January 2019)
Independent Investigations:
Libya – FFM
Venezuela – FFM
Myanmar – IIMM
Yemen – GEE
Burundi - COI
Syria - COI
South Sudan - CoHR
Kasaï region - Expert Team


A Decade of Atrocities and International Failure in Syria, Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect

Demolishing Faith: The Destruction and Desecration of Uyghur Mosques and Shrines. Bahram K. Sintash and the Uyghur Human Rights Project, 2019

“The Government Never Oppresses Us”. China’s proof-of-life videos as intimidation and a violation of Uyghur family unity. Uyghur Human Rights Project, 2021

Destroying the Soul of the Yazidis: Cultural Heritage Destruction during the Islamic State's Genocide against the Yazidis. RASHID International, Yazda and the Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa Project (EAMENA), 2019

CHINA: Hearts and Lives Broken - The Nightmare of Uyghur Families Separated by Repression. Amnesty International, 2021

“United Nations Strategy and Plan of Action on Hate Speech. Detailed Guidance on Implementation for United Nations Field Presences”. United Nations, 2020

“GLOBAL HANDBOOK ON HATE SPEECH LAWS”. The Future of Free Speech. 2020

“IS THE WORST YET TO COME? Ongoing Mass Atrocity Risks in Syria”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2018

“THEY WANT US ALL TO GO AWAY”. Early Warning Signs of Genocide in Burma”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2015

“THEY TRIED TO KILL US ALL”. Atrocity Crimes against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State, Myanmar”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2017

“Burma’s 2020 Elections and Ongoing Atrocity Risks Facing the Rohingya Population”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Trafficking in Human Beings News. Human Rights Without Frontiers

Women’s Rights News 2020-202. World

Women’s Rights News 2020-2021. Africa

Women’s Rights News 2020-2021. America

Women’s Rights News 2020-2021. Arabic Peninsula

Women’s Rights News 2020-2021. Asia

Women’s Rights News 2020-2021. Europe

Women’s Rights News 2020-2021. Middle East


Forging a climate-resilient Europe - the new EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change. European Commission. 2021

Council conclusions on Climate and Energy Diplomacy - Delivering on the external dimension of the European Green Deal. Council of the European Union. 2021

The Relationship Between Violations and Abuses of Human Rights and the Commission of Atrocity Crimes. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. 2021

Joint NGO statement on Item 2 – Interactive Dialogue with the Group of Eminent Experts on Yemen at HRC48. 2021
UN Office for Genocide Prevention and the R2P

Founding Documents:

2001 Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty on The Responsibility to Protect
2004 Report of the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change on A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility (A/59/565).
2005 Report of the Secretary-General on In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security, and Human Rights for All (A/59/2005)
2005 World Summit Outcome Document, A/RES/60/1, paragraphs 138-140


Secretary-General’s Reports

2009 Report of the Secretary-General on Implementing the Responsibility to Protect (A/63/677)
2010 Report of the Secretary-General on Early Warning, Assessment, and the Responsibility to Protect (A/64/864)
2011 Report of the Secretary-General on The Role of Regional and Subregional Arrangements In Implementing the Responsibility to Protect (A/65/877-S/2011/393)
2012 Report of the Secretary-General on The Responsibility To Protect: Timely and Decisive Response (A/66/874-S/2012/578)
2013 Report of the Secretary-General on The Responsibility to Protect: State Responsibility and Prevention (A/67/929-S/2013/399)
2014 Report of the Secretary-General on Fulfilling Our Collective Responsibility: International Assistance and the Responsibility To Protect (A/68/947-S/2014/449)
2015 Report of the Secretary-General on A Vital and Enduring Commitment: Implementing the Responsibility to Protect (A/69/981-S/2015/500)
2016 Report of the Secretary-General on Mobilising collective action: the next decade of the responsibility to protect (A/70/999–S/2016/620)
2017 Report of the Secretary-General on Implementing the Responsibility to Protect: Accountability for Prevention (A/71/1016-S/2017/556)
2018 Report of the Secretary-General on Responsibility to protect: from early warning to early action (A/72/884-S/2018/525)
2019 Report of the Secretary-General on Responsibility to protect: lessons learned for prevention (A/73/898-S/2019/463)
2020 Report of the Secretary-General on Prioritizing prevention and strengthening response: women and the responsibility to protect (A/74/964 - S/2020/501)

Resolutions by UN organs

General Assembly

The Responsibility to Protect (A/RES/63/308)
Resolution 75/277 (The responsibility to protect and the prevention of genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity) A/RES/75/277. General Assembly. 2021


Human Rights Council

Fifteenth anniversary of the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, as enshrined in the 2005 World Summit Outcome - 2020 Resolution on the responsibility to protect (A/HRC/44/L.12)


Resolutions and reports by other organisations

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights: Resolution 117 (28 November 2007), on Strengthening the Responsibility to Protect in Africa
European Parliament Recommendation to the European Council (18 April 2013) on the UN principle of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (2012/2143(INI))
Inter-Parliamentary Union Resolution (27 March 2013) on Enforcing the Responsibility to Protect: The Role of Parliament in Safeguarding Civilians’ Lives
2011 Final Report of the Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP), Study Group on the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP)
2014 Report of the High-Level Panel on the Responsibility to Protect in Southeast-Asia on Mainstreaming the Responsibility to Protect in Southeast Asia: Pathway Towards a Caring ASEAN Community


Articles by the Special Advisers

"The Responsibility to Protect" by Ivan Šimonović (Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect). Published in UN Chronicle, Vol. LIII No. 4 2016, December 2016
“From Commitment to Action: The Enduring Importance of the Responsibility to Protect” by Adama Dieng (Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide) and Jennifer Welsh (Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect). Published in "The Holocaust and United Nations Outreach Programme Discussion Papers vol. III", 2015


Global Centre for R2P

R2P Monitor, Issue 53, 15 September 2020
Summary: Atrocity Prevention and Outcomes of the Human Rights Council’s 45th Session
Resources of resolutions, statements and other official documents that reference the Responsibility to Protect.
What is R2P?
R2P Monitor, Issue 58, 1 September 2021
R2P and Holistic Approaches to Peace and Peace Processes

Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect

Climate change and atrocity crimes: the challenge in the Pacific
APR2P Reports: https://r2pasiapacific.org/apr2p-reportsGenocide and Crimes Against Humanity in Xinjiang? Applying the Legal Tests
Using Universal Jurisdiction to Combat Impunity for Atrocity Crimes
COVID-19 and Atrocity Crime Prevention in the Asia Pacific
Asia Pacific Countries at the 2019 UN General Assembly Plenary Meeting on the Responsibility to Protect
Global Responsibility to Protect Journal (2020, vol III)
Policy Briefs Eg. Women in International Security: The Value of a Feminist Foreign Policy




Canadian Centre for the Responsibility to Protect (CCR2P)

Fifteen Years in the Making: Reflections and Lessons Learned from the Responsibility to Protect Doctrine, October 2020
R2PLive Working Paper Series, 2015


Adams, Simon. “IF NOT NOW, WHEN?”: The Responsibility to Protect, the Fate of the Rohingya and the Future of Human Rights. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, 2019

Adams, Simon. Myanmar’s deadly coup and the responsibility to protect. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, 2021

“MYANMAR AND THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT”. Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. 2021

UN Human Rights Council Elections for 2022-2024 and the Responsibility to Protect. 2021
Mass atrocities in Xinjiang: Specificities and International Response.



UN Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect on the occasion of the fifteenth anniversary. UN.



António Guterres (UN Secretary-General) on the Responsibility to Protect. UN.



Jennifer Welsh, Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect - 20th Anniversary Rwanda Genocide. UN.



Pari Ibrahim at BBC News about Yezidi girls captured by ISIS. Free Yezidi Foundation.



Interview with FYF founder and director Pari Ibrahim at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Free Yezidi Foundation.



Talk to Al Jazeera - Mads Gilbert: 'People are questioning Israel', Al Jazeera English.



Humanitarianism and the R2P doctrine: A conversation with Professor Gareth Evans. Australian National University TV. 



Building a democratic Sudan that enhances everybody's human rights: Sherwin Bryce-Pease. SABC News.



Responsibility to Protect: With great power comes great responsibility. United 4 Social Change. 



Humanitarianism and the R2P doctrine: A conversation with Professor Gareth Evans. ANU TV. 



UN Ends Its War Crimes Probe In Yemen. Strait Talk. 



CYIS & ELP event | A conversation with Maggy Barankitse. CYIS Organisation.



Responsibility to Protect (R2P) in Global Politics Explained. Korczyk’s Class.



Stein & Studin: Is R2P Dead?. The Agenda with Steve Paikin.



Romeo Dallaire: A Failure to Implement R2P in Libya. Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs.



Interview: Romeo Dallaire on Rwanda and R2P. The Hague Institute.



LESSON 18 - RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT (R2P). International
Law Project.

First they killed my father (Cambodian Genocide) - Available on Netflix
Hotel Rwanda (Rwandan Genocide)
Human Flow (Documentary on the Migration Crisis) - Available on Netflix; Prime Video
Schindler’s List (Shoah)- Available on Netflix
The Promise (Armenian Genocide)
The Pianist (Shoah)- Available on Netflix
The Uncondemned (Documentary on the Rwandan Genocide - sexual violence as war crime/genocidal act)
A list of selected filmography of Genocide & Crimes against Humanity provided by The International Association of Genocide Scholars https://genocidescholars.org/resources/filmography/
https://academy.amnesty.org/learn

Lecture Series, International Crimes: Genocide and International Law (UN Library) https://legal.un.org/avl/ls/Schabas_CLP.html#

Lecture 13: The International Criminal Court and the Responsibility to Protect, Yale University



International Humanitarian Law in Theory and Practice https://www.coursera.org/learn/international-humanitarian-law#about

International Law In Action: Investigating and Prosecuting International Crimes https://www.coursera.org/learn/international-law-in-action-2#abouthttps://www.coursera.org/learn/international-law-in-action-2#about

International Law in Action: the Arbitration of International Disputes https://www.coursera.org/learn/arbitration-international-disputes?courseSlug=arbitration-international-disputes&showOnboardingModal=check

International Women's Health and Human Rights https://www.coursera.org/learn/womens-health-human-rights?courseSlug=womens-health-human-rights&showOnboardingModal=check

Human Rights for Open Societies https://www.coursera.org/learn/humanrights

Humanitarian Communication: Addressing key challenges https://www.coursera.org/learn/humanitarian-communication?courseSlug=humanitarian-communication&showOnboardingModal=check

Refugees in the 21st Century https://www.coursera.org/learn/refugees-21st-century#about

Health in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies https://www.coursera.org/learn/health-che

When disasters meet conflict https://www.coursera.org/learn/whendisastermeetsconflict

International Migrations: A global issue https://www.coursera.org/learn/international-migrations

Geopolitics of Europe https://www.coursera.org/learn/geopolitics-europe#about

The Changing Global Order https://www.coursera.org/learn/changing-global-order

Understanding International Relations Theory https://www.coursera.org/learn/international-relations-theory

Conflict Transformation https://www.coursera.org/learn/conflict-transformation#about

Using Interreligious Dialogue (IRD) to Strengthen Peace, Reconciliation and Social Cohesion. The International Dialogue Centre (KAICIID)

https://www.kaiciid.org/dialogue-knowledge-hub/dkh-e-learning-courses/using-interreligious-dialogue-ird-strengthen-peace

Intercultural Communication. The International Dialogue Centre (KAICIID)

https://www.kaiciid.org/dialogue-knowledge-hub/dkh-e-learning-courses/intercultural-communication

Countering Hate Speech Through the Promotion of IRD and Cooperation for Peace. The International Dialogue Centre (KAICIID)

https://www.kaiciid.org/dialogue-knowledge-hub/dkh-e-learning-courses/countering-hate-speech-through-promotion-ird-and-0

Interfaith Peace and Dialogue Models: A Venue for Peace Building. The International Dialogue Centre (KAICIID)

https://www.kaiciid.org/dialogue-knowledge-hub/dkh-e-learning-courses/interfaith-peace-and-dialogue-models-venue-peace-building

Interreligious Dialogue in Virtual Communities and Social Networks. The International Dialogue Centre (KAICIID)

https://www.kaiciid.org/dialogue-knowledge-hub/dkh-e-learning-courses/interreligious-dialogue-virtual-communities-and-social
The Genocide Convention: a call for action.



How to prevent genocide - a conversation with war crimes expert, Theodor Meron



Chimamanda Adichie: The danger of the single story (Ted Talk)



When you shouldn't follow the rules, TED Talk



Hidden cameras that film injustice in the world's most dangerous places, TED Talk



Holocaust and genocide survivors: Forgive or forget? | Guardian Docs, The Guardian



Genocide Agenda l Al Jazeera Investigations, Al Jazeera English



An Introduction to Human Rights Advocacy. Human Rights Watch



What are human rights?. Human Rights Watch



What is the difference between a crime and a human rights violation?. Human Rights Watch



Who has to uphold human rights?. Human Rights Watch



Does international law protect human rights?. Human Rights Watch



ICC: Victims of Atrocities Deserve Justice. Human Rights Watch



GAAMAC: Preventing and Punishing the Steps to Genocide



Genocide: Why We Let it Happen | Full Panel Discussion, Oxford Union



Women, peace and security: sexual violence in conflict - Security Council, VTC open debate, UN Web Tv

http://webtv.un.org/search/women-peace-and-security-sexual-violence-in-conflict-security-council-vtc-open-debate/6249025907001/?term=&lan=english&page=3

Preventing and ending atrocity crimes - a key challenge for the UN Security Council, UN Web Tv

http://webtv.un.org/search/preventing-and-ending-atrocity-crimes-a-key-challenge-for-the-un-security-council/5137354733001/?term=genocide&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=2

From Prevention to Protection: the Genocide Convention 65 Years On - Panel discussion, UN Web Tv

http://webtv.un.org/search/from-prevention-to-protection-the-genocide-convention-65-years-on-panel-discussion/2915418321001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

The World in the Age of Genocide - Panel discussion, UN Web Tv.

http://webtv.un.org/search/the-world-in-the-age-of-genocide-panel-discussion/2929658531001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

From Emergency Relief to Humanitarian Multilateralism: The Legacy of Near East Philanthropy in the Age of Genocide, UN Web Tv.

http://webtv.un.org/search/from-emergency-relief-to-humanitarian-multilateralism-the-legacy-of-near-east-philanthropy-in-the-age-of-genocide/6250529126001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

Launching of the Manual on Human Rights and Prevention of Genocide, UN Web Tv

http://webtv.un.org/search/launching-of-the-manual-on-human-rights-and-prevention-of-genocide/4175431596001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

(Session I) Intersessional Meeting on the Prevention of Genocide - Human Rights Council, UN Web Tv

http://webtv.un.org/search/session-i-intersessional-meeting-on-the-prevention-of-genocide-human-rights-council/6231181632001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

(Session II) Intersessional Meeting on the Prevention of Genocide - Human Rights Council, UN Web Tv

http://webtv.un.org/search/session-ii-intersessional-meeting-on-the-prevention-of-genocide-human-rights-council/6231181240001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

Hate speech and incitement to genocide - Panel discussion, Un Web Tv

http://webtv.un.org/search/hate-speech-and-incitement-to-genocide-panel-discussion/2134929306001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

Launching of the Manual on Human Rights and Prevention of Genocide, UN Web Tv

http://webtv.un.org/search/launching-of-the-manual-on-human-rights-and-prevention-of-genocide/4175431596001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

69th Anniversary of the Genocide Convention and the International Day of the Victims of Genocide, UN Web TV

http://webtv.un.org/search/69th-anniversary-of-the-genocide-convention-and-the-international-day-of-the-victims-of-genocide/5672402031001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

2020 International Day of Victims of Crime of Genocide, UN Web TV

http://webtv.un.org/search/2020-international-day-of-victims-of-crime-of-genocide/6215253128001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

Hate Speech: A Global Overview. GAAMAC



Promoting human rights mechanisms to prevent mass atrocities. GAAMAC



Understanding Sexual and Gender Based Violence in Mass Atrocity Crimes (Youth). Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect.



Understanding Sexual & Gender-based Mass Atrocity Crimes Webinar. Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect.



Networks for Youth in Atrocity Prevention. Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect.



The Powers of the UN General Assembly to Prevent and Halt Mass Atrocity Crimes. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect.



"Genocidal Ideologies: Warning Signs and Prevention." U.S. Naval War College



Importance of Accountability: Genocide Prevention and Justice for Victims Panel. Darfur Women Action Group



2020–21 Mass Killing Early Warning List: Launch Event. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum



World Report 2019: Reversing Autocrats’ Attacks on Rights. Human Rights Watch



Hate speech and incitement to genocide - Panel discussion, UN Web Tv

http://webtv.un.org/search/hate-speech-and-incitement-to-genocide-panel-discussion/2134929306001/?term=prevention&lan=english&cat=Human%20Rights&sort=date&page=3

Decoding Hate Speech: Mobilizing the Community to Action. GAAMAC



The Risk of Mass Atrocities During a Pandemic. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR).



#RightsCity: Confronting online hate speech. Montreal Institute For Genocide And Human Rights Studies.



Responding to Genocide. International Peace Institute.



Michelle Bachelet speaks at the Human Rights Council's 48th session. UN Human Rights Council.



The Call | Greg Stanton. TEDx Talks.



MED Dialogue with Michelle Bachelet, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. ISPI. 



Hear the Youth, European Peacebuilding Liaison Office



Youth Build Peace, European Peacebuilding Liaison Office



GAAMAC IV - Day 1, Opening Panel: Addressing hate speech in an era of increasing intolerance. GAAMAC.



GAAMAC IV - Day 1, Panel: Hate speech as a risk indicator and triggering factor of mass atrocities. GAAMAC. 



GAAMAC IV: Panels & Plenaries, Day 2. GAAMAC. 



GAAMAC IV: Panels & Plenaries, Day 3. GAAMAC. 



GAAMAC IV: Panels & Plenaries, Day 4. GAAMAC. 



Mass Atrocities & International Justice: An Effective Deterrent? (Panel Discussion). Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. 



Strengthening the role of Special Procedures in advancing atrocity prevention. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect.



International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. United Nations.



The Role of Education in Combatting Genocide Denial. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect.

https://www.globalr2p.org/resources/the-role-of-education-in-combatting-genocide-denial/