Resolutions by UN organs

General Assembly

International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of This Crime (A/RES/69/323)


Human Rights Council

2008 Resolution on Prevention of Genocide (A/HRC/RES/7/25)
2013 Resolution on Prevention of Genocide (A/HRC/RES/22/22)
2015 Resolution on Prevention of Genocide (A/HRC/RES/28/34)
2018 Resolution on Prevention of Genocide (A/HRC/37/L.44)
A/HRC/RES/43/29 (2020) Prevention of genocide



Articles by the Special Advisers

"Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Genocide" by Adama Dieng (Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide). Published in UN Chronicle, Vol. LIII No. 4 2016, December 2016


Other Documents

Framework of Analysis for Atrocity Crimes
When To Refer To A Situation as Genocide


Global Action Against Mass Atrocity Crimes

GAAMAC III - Third Global Meeting
Manual on Best Practices for the Establishment and Management of National Mechanisms for Genocide and Mass Atrocities Prevention
Women and atrocity prevention (Karen Smith)
The impact of COVID-19 on transitional justice and atrocity prevention
Link to other news articles


Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies

Preventing violent extremism and mass atrocities - A handbook for parliamentarians
How can Canada best support women in the field of conflict and atrocity prevention?, 2018
Mapping the Artificial Intelligence, Networked Hate, and Human Rights Landscape, 2018
A brief listing of some major works dealing with genocides and their comparative aspects


“PLAN OF ACTION for Religious Leaders and Actors TO PREVENT Incitement to Violence that Could Lead to Atrocity Crimes”. United Nations

“THE POWERS OF THE UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY TO PREVENT AND RESPOND TO ATROCITY CRIMES: A GUIDANCE DOCUMENT”. Asia- Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. 2021

“Atrocity Prevention and Outcomes of the Human Rights Council’s 46th Session”. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. Summary. 2021

“The Future of Mass Atrocities and Atrocity Prevention. Report from the 2020 Sudikoff Interdisciplinary Seminar on Genocide Prevention”. UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM. 2021

“Practical Prevention. How the Genocide Convention’s Obligation to Prevent Applies to Myanmar. LEGAL BRIEF. Report #1: Identifying and Mitigating Risk Factors”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

“Practical Prevention. How the Genocide Convention’s Obligation to Prevent Applies to Myanmar. LEGAL BRIEF. Report #2: The Denial of the Right to Citizenship and the Right to Participate in Public Affairs”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

“Fundamentals of Genocide and Mass Atrocity Prevention”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
European Peacebuilding Liaison Office (EPLO)

A new Africa-EU Strategy: Recommendations for EU support to peace and security in the framework of a renewed Africa-EU Partnership, October 2020
Mapping of actors: The EU and peacebuilding after Lisbon, updated in February 2020
Capacity building in support of development and security for development: Recommendations for implementation, May 2018
How will the EU support peacebuilding after 2020? EPLO’s position on the next EU Multiannual Financial Framework, May 2018
Resolutions by UN organs

Human Rights Council

2016 Resolution on Human Rights and Transitional Justice (A/HRC/RES/33/19)


United Nations Human Rights Council

Report of the Human Rights Council (2020) (A/75/53)
Yearly reports on regular sessions are also available
Intersessional meeting on human rights and the 2030 Agenda (16 January 2019)
Independent Investigations:
Libya – FFM
Venezuela – FFM
Myanmar – IIMM
Yemen – GEE
Burundi - COI
Syria - COI
South Sudan - CoHR
Kasaï region - Expert Team


A Decade of Atrocities and International Failure in Syria, Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect

Demolishing Faith: The Destruction and Desecration of Uyghur Mosques and Shrines. Bahram K. Sintash and the Uyghur Human Rights Project, 2019

“The Government Never Oppresses Us”. China’s proof-of-life videos as intimidation and a violation of Uyghur family unity. Uyghur Human Rights Project, 2021

Destroying the Soul of the Yazidis: Cultural Heritage Destruction during the Islamic State's Genocide against the Yazidis. RASHID International, Yazda and the Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa Project (EAMENA), 2019

CHINA: Hearts and Lives Broken - The Nightmare of Uyghur Families Separated by Repression. Amnesty International, 2021

“United Nations Strategy and Plan of Action on Hate Speech. Detailed Guidance on Implementation for United Nations Field Presences”. United Nations, 2020

“GLOBAL HANDBOOK ON HATE SPEECH LAWS”. The Future of Free Speech. 2020

“IS THE WORST YET TO COME? Ongoing Mass Atrocity Risks in Syria”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2018

“THEY WANT US ALL TO GO AWAY”. Early Warning Signs of Genocide in Burma”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2015

“THEY TRIED TO KILL US ALL”. Atrocity Crimes against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State, Myanmar”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2017

“Burma’s 2020 Elections and Ongoing Atrocity Risks Facing the Rohingya Population”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
UN Office for Genocide Prevention and the R2P

Founding Documents:

2001 Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty on The Responsibility to Protect
2004 Report of the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change on A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility (A/59/565).
2005 Report of the Secretary-General on In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security, and Human Rights for All (A/59/2005)
2005 World Summit Outcome Document, A/RES/60/1, paragraphs 138-140


Secretary-General’s Reports

2009 Report of the Secretary-General on Implementing the Responsibility to Protect (A/63/677)
2010 Report of the Secretary-General on Early Warning, Assessment, and the Responsibility to Protect (A/64/864)
2011 Report of the Secretary-General on The Role of Regional and Subregional Arrangements In Implementing the Responsibility to Protect (A/65/877-S/2011/393)
2012 Report of the Secretary-General on The Responsibility To Protect: Timely and Decisive Response (A/66/874-S/2012/578)
2013 Report of the Secretary-General on The Responsibility to Protect: State Responsibility and Prevention (A/67/929-S/2013/399)
2014 Report of the Secretary-General on Fulfilling Our Collective Responsibility: International Assistance and the Responsibility To Protect (A/68/947-S/2014/449)
2015 Report of the Secretary-General on A Vital and Enduring Commitment: Implementing the Responsibility to Protect (A/69/981-S/2015/500)
2016 Report of the Secretary-General on Mobilising collective action: the next decade of the responsibility to protect (A/70/999–S/2016/620)
2017 Report of the Secretary-General on Implementing the Responsibility to Protect: Accountability for Prevention (A/71/1016-S/2017/556)
2018 Report of the Secretary-General on Responsibility to protect: from early warning to early action (A/72/884-S/2018/525)
2019 Report of the Secretary-General on Responsibility to protect: lessons learned for prevention (A/73/898-S/2019/463)
2020 Report of the Secretary-General on Prioritizing prevention and strengthening response: women and the responsibility to protect (A/74/964 - S/2020/501)

Resolutions by UN organs

General Assembly

The Responsibility to Protect (A/RES/63/308)


Human Rights Council

Fifteenth anniversary of the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, as enshrined in the 2005 World Summit Outcome - 2020 Resolution on the responsibility to protect (A/HRC/44/L.12)


Resolutions and reports by other organisations

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights: Resolution 117 (28 November 2007), on Strengthening the Responsibility to Protect in Africa
European Parliament Recommendation to the European Council (18 April 2013) on the UN principle of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (2012/2143(INI))
Inter-Parliamentary Union Resolution (27 March 2013) on Enforcing the Responsibility to Protect: The Role of Parliament in Safeguarding Civilians’ Lives
2011 Final Report of the Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP), Study Group on the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP)
2014 Report of the High-Level Panel on the Responsibility to Protect in Southeast-Asia on Mainstreaming the Responsibility to Protect in Southeast Asia: Pathway Towards a Caring ASEAN Community


Articles by the Special Advisers

"The Responsibility to Protect" by Ivan Šimonović (Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect). Published in UN Chronicle, Vol. LIII No. 4 2016, December 2016
“From Commitment to Action: The Enduring Importance of the Responsibility to Protect” by Adama Dieng (Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide) and Jennifer Welsh (Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect). Published in "The Holocaust and United Nations Outreach Programme Discussion Papers vol. III", 2015


Global Centre for R2P

R2P Monitor, Issue 53, 15 September 2020
Summary: Atrocity Prevention and Outcomes of the Human Rights Council’s 45th Session
Resources of resolutions, statements and other official documents that reference the Responsibility to Protect.
What is R2P?


Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect

Climate change and atrocity crimes: the challenge in the Pacific
APR2P Reports: https://r2pasiapacific.org/apr2p-reportsGenocide and Crimes Against Humanity in Xinjiang? Applying the Legal Tests
Using Universal Jurisdiction to Combat Impunity for Atrocity Crimes
COVID-19 and Atrocity Crime Prevention in the Asia Pacific
Asia Pacific Countries at the 2019 UN General Assembly Plenary Meeting on the Responsibility to Protect
Global Responsibility to Protect Journal (2020, vol III)
Policy Briefs Eg. Women in International Security: The Value of a Feminist Foreign Policy




Canadian Centre for the Responsibility to Protect (CCR2P)

Fifteen Years in the Making: Reflections and Lessons Learned from the Responsibility to Protect Doctrine, October 2020
R2PLive Working Paper Series, 2015


Adams, Simon. “IF NOT NOW, WHEN?”: The Responsibility to Protect, the Fate of the Rohingya and the Future of Human Rights. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, 2019

Adams, Simon. Myanmar’s deadly coup and the responsibility to protect. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, 2021

“MYANMAR AND THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT”. Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. 2021
Mass atrocities in Xinjiang: Specificities and International Response



UN Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect on the occasion of the fifteenth anniversary



António Guterres (UN Secretary-General) on the Responsibility to Protect, UN



Jennifer Welsh, Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect - 20th Anniversary Rwanda Genocide, UN



Pari Ibrahim at BBC News about Yezidi girls captured by ISIS, Free Yezidi Foundation, 2016



Interview with FYF founder and director Pari Ibrahim at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Free Yezidi Foundation, 2019



Talk to Al Jazeera - Mads Gilbert: 'People are questioning Israel', Al Jazeera English



Humanitarianism and the R2P doctrine: A conversation with Professor Gareth Evans. Australian National University TV. 

Throughout the twentieth century, genocide became a frequent occurrence with millions massacred. This has continued into the twentieth-first century, where perpetrators engage in the intentional mass killing of particular groups in society. Such events are not sudden occurrences but take place under particular circumstances developed over time.

To help recognize the evolution of genocidal processes and prevent future tragedies, American scholar Gregory H. Stanton developed the theory of “ten stages of genocide,” which describe the different stages leading up to a genocide. The stages are as follows: (1) classification; (2) symbolization; (3) discrimination; (4) dehumanization; (5) organization; (6) polarization; (7) preparation; (8) persecution; (9) extermination; and (10) denial. This process is not necessarily linear, and stages may occur in parallel to each other.

The authors of the article attempt to demonstrate the role that artificial intelligence (AI) can play throughout that process in terms of how it can exacerbate the situation or prevent its escalation. In particular, AI in relation to (1) the media and (2) surveillance is discussed given that both appear to be the most common features within the ten stages. While there are of course other AI tools that may be employed throughout the genocidal process, they will not be the focus of the paper. The paper merely attempts to introduce its readers to and raise awareness of the ten stages of genocide, providing a detailed overview of said stages, in addition to how AI vis-à-vis the media and surveillance may play a role in the process.

The article is the third piece in the series of reflections, prepared by the group of interns of the Budapest Centre, which aims to illustrate the role of AI in fighting mass atrocities. The authors hope that the document will also contribute to the research planned by the Budapest Centre within the Initiative “Multipolar Task Force.”

Read more by following the link

Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming commonplace in every aspect of society at an accelerating rate, employed in civilian industries such as healthcare and education but also for military means. While there are several benefits to such a trend, the rise of AI does not come without challenges.

A paper was published by the Budapest Centre recently on the security risks related to the rise of AI in the context of mass atrocities. This second paper of the series aims to provide an overview of the policies and recommendations made by international and regional organizations in this realm. Building upon this, the paper concludes that the majority of the eight well-known organizations addressed in the paper do not tackle the challenges from a security perspective.

The Budapest Center for Mass Atrocities Prevention, therefore, pushes these organizations to look closer at concrete actions in the field of AI and mass atrocities they could take by articulating policies and recommendations that governments should take on this topic. The paper predominantly targets young people to introduce them to the topic of mass atrocities in relation to AI; however, academics are welcome to utilize this work for their purposes. The authors hope that the document will also contribute to the research planned by the Budapest Centre within the Initiative “Multipolar Task Force.”

Read more by following the link